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introduction of several industry grinding mills

Author: HXJQTime: 3/18/2012 7:43:32 PM

The grinding of solid matters occurs under exposure of mechanical forces that trench the structure by overcoming of the interior bonding forces. After the grinding the state of the solid is changed: the grain size, the grain size disposition and the grain shape.

Autogenous mill

Autogenous mills are so-called due to the self-grinding of the ore: a rotating drum throws larger rocks of ore in a cascading motion which causes impact breakage of larger rocks and compressive grinding of finer particles. It is similar in operation to a SAG mill as described below but does not use steel balls in the mill. Also known as ROM or "Run Of Mine" grinding.

SAG mill

SAG is an acronym for Semi-Autogenous Grinding. SAG mills are essentially autogenous mills, but utilize grinding balls to aid in grinding like in a ball mill. A SAG mill is generally used as a primary or first stage grinding solution. The SAG mills use a minimal ball charge of 6 to 15%. SAG mills can be as large as 42' in diameter, with up to a 28 MW (37549 HP) motor.

Attrition in the grinding balls causes grinding of finer particles. SAG mills are characterized by their large diameter and short length as compared to ball mills. The inside of the mill is lined with lifting plates to lift the material inside up and around the inside of the mill, where it then falls off the plates into the rest of the ore. SAG mills are primarily used in the gold, copper and platinum industries with applications also in the lead, zinc, silver, alumina and nickel industries.

Principle of SAG Mill operation

Principle of SAG Mill operation

Pebble mill

A rotating drum causes friction and attrition between rock pebbles and ore particles. May be used where product contamination by iron from steel balls must be avoided. Quartz or silica is commonly used because it is inexpensive to obtain.

High pressure grinding rolls

The high pressure grinding rolls, often referred to as HPGRs or roller press, consists out of two rollers with the same dimensions, which are rotating against each other with the same circumferential speed. The special feeding of bulk material through a hopper leads to a material bed between the two rollers. The bearing units of one roller can move linearly and are pressed against the material bed by springs or hydraulic cylinders. The pressures in the material bed are bigger than 50 MPa. In general they achieve 100 to 300 MPa. By this the material bed is compacted to a solid volume portion of more than 80 %.

The roller press has a certain similarity to roller crushers and roller presses for the compacting of powders, but purpose, construction and operation mode are different.

Extreme pressure causes the particles inside of the compacted material bed to fracture into finer particles and also causes microfracturing at the grain size level. Compared to ball mills HPGRs are achieving a 30 to 50 % lower specific energy consumption, although they are not as common as ball mills since they are a newer technology.

A similar type of intermediate crusher is the edge runner, which consists of a circular pan with two or more heavy wheels known as mullers rotating within it; material to be crushed is shoved underneath the wheels using attached plow blades.

Buhrstone mill

Another type of fine grinder commonly used is the buhrstone mill, which is similar to old-fashioned flour mills.

Vertical shaft impactor mill (VSI mill)

Type of fine grinder which uses a free impact of rock or ore particles with a wear plate. High speed of the motion of particles is achieved with a rotating accelerator. This type of mill uses the same principle as VSI Crusher.

Tower mill

Tower mills, often called vertical mills, stirred mills or regrind mills, are a more efficient means of grinding material at smaller particle sizes, and can be used after ball mills in a grinding process. Like ball mills, grinding (steel) balls or pebbles are often added to stirred mills to help grind ore, however these mills contain a large screw mounted vertically to lift and grind material. In tower mills, there is no cascading action as in standard grinding mills. Stirred mills are also common for mixing quicklime (CaO) into a lime slurry. There are several advantages to the tower mill: low noise, efficient energy usage, and low operating costs.